http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/issue/feed East European Journal of Psycholinguistics 2020-07-16T08:34:09+00:00 Serhii Zasiekin psycholing@eenu.edu.ua Open Journal Systems <p><strong>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</strong> is an international&nbsp;<a href="http://eepl.at.ua/index/licensing/0-13">open access</a>&nbsp;peer-reviewed academic periodical published semiannually in June and December with both online and print versions.</p> <p>The aim of the journal is to provide a forum for scholars to share, foster, and discuss globally various new topics and advances in different fields of modern psycholinguistics. The journal publishes original manuscripts covering but not limited to the following theoretical and applied fields of psycholinguistics, including neurolinguistics, cognitive psychology, psychology of language, translation studies.</p> http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/282 Experiences of Students with Communication Related Disabilities in the TBL Classroom 2020-07-14T09:33:58+00:00 Rachel Berkson rachel@outgra.be Uwe Matthias Richter uwe.richter@anglia.ac.uk Sarada Veerabhatla saradavn@gmail.com Larysa Zasiekina zasyekina.larisa@eenu.edu.ua <p><span lang="EN-US">The objective of this article is to explore how&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-GB">suitable Team-Based Learning (TBL) is for students with social and communication disabilities, such as those on the autism spectrum or with social anxiety. TBL is a structured form of Active Collaborative Learning, combining a flipped classroom approach with students working in permanent teams to apply concepts, models and theories into practice. The design of the study was based on an idiographic case study approach at Anglia Ruskin University, UK, treating each student as an individual rather than a representative sample. Towards the end of the academic year 2017/18, an electronic questionnaire was sent out to all students who had taken TBL modules at ARU during the preceding academic year, asking about various aspects of TBL experience. The questionnaire was repeated towards the end of the first semester of 2018/19. The questionnaire was analysed with a focus on questions relating to inclusivity, and the responses related to students who had declared a disability. The questionnaire was followed by semi-structured interviews with students with disabilities who had experienced TBL. We focused primarily on disabilities broadly related to communication, notably with dyslexia, dysgraphia, social phobia and autism that may impair students’ abilities to work in teams. Interviews were audio recorded and then transcribed. Transcriptions were thematically analysed by the research team using NVivo. The results of the study provide anonymized case studies for each of the students who took part in an interview, explaining their disability or condition, their coping strategies for studying in HE, and their experiences, both positive and negative, of the TBL modules they had taken.</span></p> <h1><strong>References</strong></h1> <ul> <li class="show">Active Collaborative Learning. (2019).&nbsp;<em>Scaling Up Active Collaborative Learning for Student Success.&nbsp;</em>Project website<em>. Retrieved from:&nbsp;</em><a href="https://aclproject.org.uk/">https://aclproject.org.uk</a>.</li> <li class="show">ARU. 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Centre for the New Economy and Society. <a href="http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs_2018.pdf">http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs_2018.pdf</a>.</li> </ul> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics. 2014 - 2020. All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/284 Associated Field Semantics in Modeling Lesya Ukrainka’s Image 2020-07-14T12:53:33+00:00 Svitlana Bohdan bohdan.svitlana@eenu.edu.ua Tetiana Tarasiuk tarasiuk.tania@eenu.edu.ua <p><span lang="EN-US">The</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">article is focused on the study of the perception</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">of</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Lesya</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Ukrainka, a famous Ukrainian writer, in</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">contemporary</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Ukrainian</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">society. The research is based on a free</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">word association test held online with 200 respondents aged from 13 to 70. As a result of applying quantitative analysis of the associates and semantic gestalt method the authors singled out productive semantic zones concerning each of the stimuli. These zones presented an anthroponymic triad of personality identification related to the author’s names ‘Larysa Kvitka’</span><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">‘Larysa Kosach’, and the pseudonym ‘Lesya Ukrainka’. The nuclear zones in each associative field manifest a tendency for uniformity. They are related to her professional activities, her works, elements of inner and outer portrayal, as well as of evaluative spectrum. The respondents have shown predominantly high levels of knowledge about Lesya Ukrainka’s personality, which is proven, in particular, by their reverse frequency reactions and peripheral character of zero reactions. 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All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/285 Investigating the Concept of “Lightness” As Reflected in the Russian-Speaking Ukrainians’ Linguistic Consciousness 2020-07-14T07:20:00+00:00 Iia Gordienko-Mytrofanova ikavgm@gmail.com Iuliia Kobzieva yu.kobzeva88@gmail.com Kateryna Borokh katya.borokh.85@gmail.com <p>The purpose of this study is to define and describe the semantic components of the verbalised concept “lightness” as a component of ludic competence in the linguistic consciousness of the Russian-speaking people from Eastern Ukraine.&nbsp;The main method of the research was a psycholinguistic experiment. The sample comprised 426 young people (aged 18-35), males and females being equally represented. Cluster analysis showed that the core of the concept “lightness” is represented by three semantic groups: “the quality being light and insignificant in weight and size&nbsp;…”, “the feeling of happiness and joyful ease”, “the feeling of freedom …, cheerfulness, excitement”. The last two clusters reveal the ambivalent nature of the concept “lightness”. The concept “lightness” is characterized by a large variety of peripheral clusters. The ones that are especially noteworthy are “insight” and “duality”. The former reflects the cognitive component of lightness, which accounts for 3 per cent. The latter reflects the concept’s ambivalent nature. Basically, the semantic content of the core of the word “lightness” does not depend on gender. The comparative analysis of the concept “lightness” in the linguistic consciousness of Ukrainian citizens and people living in Russia reveals its nationally-specific perception in the linguistic consciousness of Ukrainian people, which was reflected in the most frequent reaction “freedom”. Taken together, both samples share a number of common features: wide semantic scope; strong synonymic and weak antonymic connections between stimulus and reactions; positive emotional response to the stimulus. Finally, the results of the free word association test with the stimulus word “lightness” were successfully used to define more precisely and expand our understanding of “lightness” as a component of ludic competence taking into account both core and peripheral clusters.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>References</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show" style="font-weight: 400;">Barnett, L. (2007). 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All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/286 Homonymy and the Cognitive Operator of Norm in German 2020-07-14T07:22:11+00:00 Svitlana Kiyko s.kiyko@chnu.edu.ua Yuriy Kiyko y.kiyko@chnu.edu.ua <p><span lang="EN-US">The works of many linguists view homonymy as a negative phenomenon, which interferes with communication, complicates the perception of information, and decreases the effectiveness of the language as a means of communication.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">At the same time homonymy is a positive phenomenon which contributes to the compactness of the language, and allows to economize the units of the plain of content</span><span lang="UK">.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">The objective of our research is to determine the factors that differentiate the meaning of homonymic units, based on the broad factual material and psycholinguistic experiments.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">The components of intralinguistic homonymic rows based on the category of markedness, which correlates with the cognitive operator of norm / deviation. Among t</span><span lang="EN-GB">he criteria of markedness for homonymic differentiation are areal, social, chronological, and stylistic.&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">The fact that one of the elements of the homonymic row is unmarked was proved by a number of psycholinguistic experiments, where we offered the German speakers to suggest the first association word which occurred to them referring the homonyms in the list. The experiment was carried out in a group of students from the Institute of German Studies, Technical University Chemnitz (Germany), aged 21-25, whose native language is German. The psycholinguistic analysis shows that 97 per cent of homonymic pairs have both marked and unmarked components. This allows to explain homonymy from the point of view of the correlation of “markedness/unmarkedness”, and wider – “norm/deviation”. From the cognitive point of view language markedness is derived from cognitive markedness, i.e. the unmarked language meaning corresponds to the cognitively normal (natural, expected) state of things, and the marked language meaning corresponds to cognitive deviation, i.e. unnatural, unexpected state of things. Normal state of things belongs to the cognitive image of human experience, and is conceptualized with the minimal mental calculating effort, i.e. is activated automatically; and deviations from this image require additional calculating resources for their activation. Thus, language markedness reflects cognitive operators of norm/deviation in the specific language means in language structures, including homonymic pairs and homonymic rows.</span></p> <h1><strong><span lang="DE">References</span></strong></h1> <ul> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-GB">Bridges,</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">R</span><span lang="UK">.</span><span lang="EN-GB">S</span><span lang="UK">.<em>&nbsp;</em></span><span lang="DE">(2004).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="EN-GB">On</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="EN-GB">English</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="EN-GB">Homophones</span></em><span lang="EN-GB">.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">Society</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">for</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">Pure</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">English Tract 02</span><span lang="UK">.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="DE">Oxford: Clarendon Pr.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">Retrieved from</span><span lang="EN-US">:</span>&nbsp;<span lang="UK">http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14227/14227-h/14227-h.htm</span><span lang="DE">&nbsp;(01.05.2020)</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-GB">Cairns, H.S. 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(1953).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="DE">O</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">vz</span></em><em><span lang="UK">á</span></em><em><span lang="DE">jemn</span></em><em><span lang="UK">é</span></em><em><span lang="DE">m</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">vlivu</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">tvaru</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">a</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">v</span></em><em><span lang="UK">ý</span></em><em><span lang="DE">znamu</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">slov</span></em><span lang="UK">.&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">Praha</span><span lang="UK">:&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">St</span><span lang="UK">á</span><span lang="DE">tn</span><span lang="UK">í&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">peda</span><span lang="UK">­</span><span lang="DE">go</span><span lang="UK">­</span><span lang="DE">gick</span><span lang="UK">é&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">nakladatelstv</span><span lang="UK">í.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Ferreira, L. (2010). Metaphor comprehension in foreign language. In L. Scliar-Cabral, (Ed).&nbsp;<em>Psycholinguistics: Scientific and Technological Challenges.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></em>(pp. 84-98). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS,</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Foss, D.J. &amp; Jenkins C.M. (1973). Some effects of context on the comprehension of ambiguous sentences.&nbsp;<em>Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior</em>,&nbsp;<em>12,</em>&nbsp;577-589.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Greenberg, J. (1966).&nbsp;<em>Language universals, with special reference to feature hie­rarchies</em>. The Hague: Mouton.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-GB">Hogaboam, T.W.&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">&amp;</span><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;Perfetti, C.A. (1975). Lexical ambiguity and sentence compre­hension.&nbsp;<em>Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour</em>,&nbsp;<em>14,</em>&nbsp;265-274.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Кибрик, А.Е. (2008). Лингвистическая реконструкция когнитивной структур</span>ы. Вопросы языкознания.&nbsp;<em>4,</em>&nbsp;51-77.</li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Кійко, С.В. (2016). Синергетика омонімії як мовного, мовленнєвого і міжмовного явища. Чернівці: Родовід.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="DE">M</span><span lang="UK">аулер, Ф.И. (1983). Грамматическая омонимия в современном английском языке. Ростов: Изд. Рост. университета.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Новиков, Л.А. (1982).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="UK">Семантика русского языка</span></em><span lang="UK">.&nbsp;</span>М.: Высшая Школа.</li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Реформатский, А.А. (2004).<em>&nbsp;Введение в яз</em></span><em>ыкознание</em><span lang="UK">. 5</span>&nbsp;изд<span lang="UK">. М.: Аспект Пресс&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">Press</span><span lang="UK">.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Ruoff, A.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">(</span><span lang="DE">2014).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="UK">Häufigkeitswörterbuch gesprochener Sprache</span></em><span lang="DE">.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">2.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="UK">Auflage.&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">Berlin: d</span><span lang="DE">e Gruyter.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">Reprint 2014</span><span lang="DE">.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">DOI:&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110916058</span></li> </ul> <h1><strong>References (translated and transliterated)</strong></h1> <ul> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-GB">Bridges,</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">R</span><span lang="UK">.</span><span lang="EN-GB">S</span><span lang="UK">.<em>&nbsp;</em></span><span lang="DE">(2004).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="EN-GB">On</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="EN-GB">English</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="EN-GB">Homophones</span></em><span lang="EN-GB">.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">Society</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">for</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">Pure</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">English Tract 02</span><span lang="UK">.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="DE">Oxford: Clarendon Pr.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">Retrieved from</span><span lang="EN-US">:</span>&nbsp;<span lang="UK">http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14227/14227-h/14227-h.htm</span><span lang="DE">&nbsp;(01.05.2020)</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-GB">Cairns, H.S. (1973). Effects of bias on processing and reprocessing of lexically ambi­guous sentences.&nbsp;<em>Journal of Experimental Psychology</em>,&nbsp;<em>97,</em>&nbsp;337-343.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-GB">Croft, W. (2003).&nbsp;<em>Typology and universals</em>. 2-d ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="DE">Duch</span><span lang="UK">áč</span><span lang="DE">ek</span><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">O</span><span lang="UK">. (1953).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="DE">O</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">vz</span></em><em><span lang="UK">á</span></em><em><span lang="DE">jemn</span></em><em><span lang="UK">é</span></em><em><span lang="DE">m</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">vlivu</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">tvaru</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">a</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">v</span></em><em><span lang="UK">ý</span></em><em><span lang="DE">znamu</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">slov</span></em><span lang="UK">.&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">Praha</span><span lang="UK">:&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">St</span><span lang="UK">á</span><span lang="DE">tn</span><span lang="UK">í&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">peda</span><span lang="UK">­</span><span lang="DE">go</span><span lang="UK">­</span><span lang="DE">gick</span><span lang="UK">é&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">nakladatelstv</span><span lang="UK">í.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Ferreira, L. (2010). Metaphor comprehension in foreign language. In L. Scliar-Cabral, (Ed).&nbsp;<em>Psycholinguistics: Scientific and Technological Challenges.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></em>(pp. 84-98). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Foss, D.J. &amp; Jenkins C.M. (1973). Some effects of context on the comprehension of ambiguous sentences.&nbsp;<em>Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior</em>,&nbsp;<em>12,</em>&nbsp;577-589.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Greenberg, J. (1966).&nbsp;<em>Language universals, with special reference to feature hie­rarchies</em>. The Hague: Mouton.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-GB">Hogaboam, T.W.&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">&amp;</span><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;Perfetti, C.A. (1975). Lexical ambiguity and sentence compre­hension.&nbsp;<em>Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour</em>,&nbsp;<em>14,</em>&nbsp;265-274.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Kibrik,</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;А.Е.</span><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;(2008).</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Lingvisti</span><span lang="EN-GB">č</span><span lang="EN-US">eskaya</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">rekonstrukciya</span><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;kognitivnoy</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">struktury</span><span lang="UK">&nbsp;[</span><span lang="DE">Linguistic</span>&nbsp;<span lang="DE">reconstruction</span>&nbsp;<span lang="DE">of</span>&nbsp;<span lang="DE">cognitive</span>&nbsp;<span lang="DE">structure</span><span lang="UK">]</span><span lang="EN-GB">.</span>&nbsp;<em><span lang="EN-GB">Voprosy</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="EN-GB">yazykoznaniya</span></em><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;<em>4,</em>&nbsp;51–77.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="DE">Kiyko</span><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">S</span><span lang="UK">.</span><span lang="DE">V</span><span lang="UK">. (2016).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="DE">Synergetyka</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">omonimii</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">yak</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">movnoho</span></em><em><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span></em><em><span lang="DE">movlennevoho</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">i</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">moshmovnoho</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">yavyshcha</span></em><span lang="UK">.&nbsp;<em>[</em></span><em><span lang="DE">Synergy of homonymy as language, speech and interlanguage phenomenon</span></em><em><span lang="UK">]</span></em><em><span lang="DE">.</span></em>&nbsp;<span lang="DE">Chernivtsi</span><span lang="UK">:&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">Rodovid</span><span lang="UK">.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="DE">Mauler</span><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">F</span><span lang="UK">.</span><span lang="DE">I</span><span lang="UK">. (1983).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="DE">Grammati</span></em><em><span lang="UK">č</span></em><em><span lang="DE">eskaya</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">omonimiya</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">v</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">sovremennom</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">angliyskom</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">yazyke</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="UK">[</span></em><em><span lang="DE">Grammatical</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">homonymy</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">in</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">Modern</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">English</span></em><em><span lang="UK">]</span></em><span lang="UK">.&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">Rostov</span><span lang="UK">:&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">Rostov University Publishers</span><span lang="UK">.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="DE">Novikov</span><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">L</span><span lang="UK">.А. (1982).<em>&nbsp;</em></span><em><span lang="DE">Semantika</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">russkogo</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">yazyka [Semantics of Russian language]</span></em><span lang="UK">. М.:&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">Vys</span><span lang="UK">.&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">shkola</span><span lang="UK">.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="DE">Reformatskiy</span><span lang="UK">, А.А. (2004).<em>&nbsp;</em></span><em><span lang="DE">Vvedeniye</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">v</span></em><em>&nbsp;</em><em><span lang="DE">yazykoznaniye</span></em><em><span lang="UK">&nbsp;[</span></em><em><span lang="DE">Introduction into linguistics</span></em><em><span lang="UK">]</span></em><span lang="UK">. 5-</span><span lang="DE">th</span>&nbsp;<span lang="DE">ed</span><span lang="UK">. М</span><span lang="EN-US">oscow</span><span lang="UK">:&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">Aspekt Press</span><span lang="UK">.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Ruoff, A.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">(</span><span lang="DE">2014).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="UK">Häufigkeitswörterbuch gesprochener Sprache</span></em><span lang="DE">.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">2.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="UK">Auflage.&nbsp;</span><span lang="DE">Berlin: d</span><span lang="DE">e Gruyter.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">Reprint</span><span lang="DE">.&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110916058.</span></li> </ul> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics. 2014 - 2020. All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/287 The Contributions of Singular and Plural Nouns to Sentence Processing Complexity: Evidence from Reading Time 2020-07-14T07:24:12+00:00 Rachel Messer rmesser@bethelks.edu Shelia Kennison shelia.kennison@okstate.edu <p>The nature of semantic representations of plural nouns has been a subject of debates in the literature. The present research investigated the extent to which there are differences in the processing of plural versus single noun descriptions (e.g., the large chairs vs. the large chair).&nbsp; In two reading experiments, we tested whether plural (versus singular) nouns appearing in sentences were more difficult to process initially and/or led to increased processing difficulty when occurring in sentences that contain a temporary syntactic ambiguity. Reading time on syntactically ambiguous sentences containing plural or singular nouns were compared with reading time on unambiguous control sentences. The results of both experiments demonstrated significant effects of sentence ambiguity.&nbsp; No effects or interactions involving noun number were observed, indicating that the complexity of plural nouns does not result in processing difficulty during sentence comprehension.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>References</strong></p> <ul> <li>Adams, B., Clifton, C., &amp; Mitchell, D. (1998). Lexical guidance in sentence processing? <em>Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 5</em>(2<em>)</em>, 265-270. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03212949.</li> <li>Baayen, R. H., Dijkstra, T., &amp; Schreuder, R. (1997). Singulars and plurals in Dutch: Evidence for a parallel dual-route model. <em>Journal of Memory and Language, 37</em>(1), 94-117. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1997.2509.</li> <li>Barker, C. (1992). Group terms in English: Representing groups as atoms. <em>Journal of Semantics 9</em>(1), 69-93. https://doi.org/10.1093/jos/9.1.69.</li> <li>Barsalou, L. W. (1999).&nbsp; Perceptual symbol systems. <em>Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 22</em>, 577-660. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X99002149.</li> <li>Clark, H. H. (1973). The language-as-fixed-effect fallacy: A critique of language statistics in psychological research. <em>Journal of Verbal Learning &amp; Verbal Behavior, 12</em>, 335-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(73)80014-3.</li> <li>Dominguez, A., Cuetos, F., &amp; Segui, J. (1999). The processing of grammatical gender and number in Spanish. <em>Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 28</em>(5), 485-498. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023216326448.</li> <li>Ferreira, F., &amp; Henderson, J. (1990). Use of verb information during syntactic parsing: Evidence from eye tracking and word by word self-paced reading<em>. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, &amp; Cognition, 16</em>, 555-568. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.16.4.555.</li> <li>Ferreira, F., &amp; Henderson, J. M. (1991). Recovery from misanalyses of garden-path sentences. <em>Journal of Memory and Language, 30</em>(6), 725-745. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(91)90034-H.</li> <li>Ferreira, F., &amp; McClure, K. K. (1997). Parsing of garden-path sentences with reciprocal verbs. <em>Language and Cognitive Processes, 12</em>, 273–306. https://doi.org/10.1080/016909697386862.</li> <li>Garnsey, S. M., Pearlmutter, N. J., Myers, E., &amp; Lotocky, M. (1997). The contributions of verb bias and plausibility to the comprehension of temporarily ambiguous sentences. <em>Journal of Memory &amp; Language, 37</em>, 58-93. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1997.2512.</li> <li>Johnson-Laird, P. (1983). <em>Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness.</em>&nbsp; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.</li> <li>Kennison, S. M. (2001). Limitations on the use of verb information in sentence comprehension.&nbsp; <em>Psychonomic Bulletin &amp; Review, 8</em>, 132-138. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196149.</li> <li>Kennison, S. M. (2005).&nbsp; Different time courses of integrative semantic processing for plural and singular nouns: Implications for theories of sentence processing. <em>Cognition, 97</em>, 269-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2004.09.005.</li> <li>Mitchell, D. C. (1987). Lexical guidance in human parsing: Locus and processing characteristics. In M. Coltheart (Ed.), <em>Attention and Performance 12: The Psychology of Reading</em> (pp. 601-618). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.&nbsp;</li> <li>New, B., Brysbaert, M., Segui, J., Ferrand, L., &amp; Rastle, K. (2004). The processing of singular and plural nouns in French and English. <em>Journal of Memory and Language, 51</em>, 568-585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2004.06.010</li> <li>Patson, N. D. (2014). The processing of plural expressions. Language and Linguistics Compass, 8(8), 319-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12085</li> <li>Patson, N. D., George, G., &amp; Warren, T. (2014). The conceptual representation of number. <em>The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67</em>(7), 1349-1365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.863372</li> <li>Patson, N.(2014). The processing of plural expressions. <em>Language and Linguistics Compass, 8(8)</em>, 319-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12085</li> <li>Patson, N. (2016). Evidence in support of a scalar implicature account of plurality. <em>Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42</em>(7<em>),</em> 1140-1153. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000224.</li> <li>Patson, N. D., &amp; Ferreira, F. (2009). Conceptual plural information is used to guide early parsing decisions: Evidence from garden-path sentences with reciprocal verbs. <em>Journal of Memory and Language, 60</em>, 464-486.</li> <li>Patson, N., George, G., &amp; Warren, T. (2014). The conceptual representation of number. <em>The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67</em>(7), 1349-1365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.863372</li> <li>Patson, N., &amp; Warren, T. (2011). Building complex reference objects from dual sets. <em>Journal of Memory and Language, 64</em>, 443–459. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.863372.</li> <li>Patson, N., &amp; Warren, T. (2014). Comparing the roles of referents and event structures in parsing preferences. <em>Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29</em>, 408–423. <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2013.788197">http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2013.788197</a>.</li> <li>Schneider, W., Eschman, A., &amp; Zuccolotto, A. (2002). E-Prime (Version 2.0). [Computer software and manual]. Pittsburgh, PA: Psychology Software Tools Inc.</li> <li>Schreuder, R., &amp; Baayen, R. (1997). How complex simple words can be. <em>Journal of Memory and Language, 37</em>(1), 118-139. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1997.2510.</li> <li>Schwarzschild, R. (1996). <em>Pluralities</em>. Kluwer, Dordrecht.</li> <li>Sereno, J. A., &amp; Jongman, A. (1997). Processing of English inflectional morphology<em>. Memory &amp; Cognition, 25(4)</em>, 425-437. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03201119.</li> <li>Sturt, P., Pickering, M. J., &amp; Crocker, M. W. (2000). Search strategies in syntactic reanalysis. <em>Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 29(2</em>), 183-194. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005145028351.</li> <li>Zwaan, R. A., Stanfield, R. A., &amp; Yaxley, R. H. (2002).&nbsp; Language comprehenders mentally represent the shapes of objects. <em>Psychological science, 13</em>(2), 168-171. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00430.</li> </ul> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics. 2014 - 2020. All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/288 Invective Vocabulary in Media Discourse at the Beginning of the 21st Century: A Psycholinguistic Aspect 2020-07-14T07:26:11+00:00 Oleksandr Mezhov mezhov.oleksandr@eenu.edu.ua Maryna Navalna m.navalna@phdpu.edu.ua Nataliia Kostusiak kostusyak.nataliia@eenu.edu.ua <p><span lang="EN-US">The article draws on a broad interpretation of the invective &nbsp;as a &nbsp;non</span><span lang="UK">‑</span><span lang="EN-US">standard (non-literary) vocabulary&nbsp;known in linguistics as&nbsp;<em> jargonisms, expletives, vulgarisms; foul, pejorative</em></span><em><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span></em><em><span lang="EN-US">negatively&nbsp;coloured</span></em><em><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span></em><em><span lang="EN-US">disparaging</span></em><em><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span></em><em><span lang="EN-US">slang</span></em><em><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span></em><em><span lang="EN-US">obscene</span></em><em><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></em><em><span lang="EN-US">coarse, abusive</span></em><em><span lang="EN-US">, taboo words</span></em><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;and other lexical units<em>&nbsp;</em></span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;that contain the meaning of an insult in their semic structure;&nbsp;less often the invective is understood as&nbsp; a codified &nbsp;(literary) vocabulary which acquires the insulting meaning in a context as an expression of the speaker’s communicative intention and pragmatic tactics of consciously offering a public affront to a specific addressee of communication. The aim of the research is&nbsp;the lexico-semantic and communicative-pragmatic characteristics of the invective vocabulary in&nbsp;a modern media discourse and social networks as a specific verbal mean</span><span lang="UK">s</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;of a psychological impact on the consciousness of the recipients.&nbsp;By resorting to the method of free word association test, the authors have studied a conscious and/or subconscious reaction of Ukrainian females&nbsp;and males to pejorative by-words that stir up a feeling of&nbsp;insult.&nbsp;100 people have been selected as respondents (50 people of each gender). All of them were Ukrainian native speakers including female and male lecturers and students of Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University (Ukraine) and Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi Hryhorii Skovoroda State Pedagogical University (Ukraine); choosing the stimuli, the authors proceeded from the frequency of their use in the texts of modern mass media (out of 300 detected nominations the authors used&nbsp;100 units).&nbsp;According to the extent of the insult&nbsp;caused by the given words&nbsp;they were rated on a scale of 1 to 4 which made&nbsp;it possible to combine the analyzed stimuli into four groups with the following scores:&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">1)&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">2.65–2.93; 2)&nbsp;1.67–2.31; 3)&nbsp;1.03–1.54; 4)&nbsp;0 (zero).&nbsp;The experiment gave a clear structure of the invective – a psycholinguistic category including a communicative-pragmatic intention of the insult.</span></p> <p><strong><span lang="UK">References</span></strong></p> <ul> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Білоконенко&nbsp;Л. Пейоративна й інвективна лексика в міжособистісному конфлікті.&nbsp;<em>Філологічні студії</em>.</span>&nbsp;<em><span lang="UK">Науковий вісник Криворізького державного педагогічного університету.</span></em><span lang="UK">&nbsp;2012. Вип. 7, Ч. 2. С.&nbsp;119–127.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Войцехівська&nbsp;Н. Інвективи в конфліктному діалогічному дискурсі.&nbsp;<em>Гуманітарна освіта в технічних вищих навчальних закладах.&nbsp;</em>Київ, 2014. &nbsp;№ 29. С.&nbsp;322–332,&nbsp;</span>https://doi.org/10.18372/2520-6818.29.8011.</li> <li class="show">Иссерс&nbsp;О. Коммуникативные стратегии и тактики русской речи. М<span lang="UK">осква&nbsp;</span>: КомКнига, 200<span lang="UK">8</span>.<span lang="UK">&nbsp;288&nbsp;с.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Костусяк&nbsp;Н., Межов&nbsp;O. 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All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/289 Application Perspectives of Corpus-Based Methods Within Linguo-Cultural and Psycholinguistic Analysis: German Emotional Concept Sehnsucht 2020-07-14T07:27:49+00:00 Kostiantyn Mizin kmizin@i.ua Lesia Ovsiienko lesichkameta@gmail.com <p><span lang="EN-US">The paper aims at exploring the German emotional concept SEHNSUCHT features on the basis of corpus-based method being part of contrastive linguo-cultural (language-and-culture oriented) analysis of specific linguo-cultural (language-and-culture) concepts.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">The tested method includes two research procedures: 1)</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">establishing relevant senses of the concept SEHNSUCHT and identifying their basic sense clusters by contrastive translation analysis of concordances built on the basis of the word query&nbsp;<em>Sehnsucht</em>; 2) determining the emotional concepts that can serve as the representatives of the concept SEHNSUCHT in the target linguo-cultures (languages and cultures). The latter procedure includes processing the co-occurrent profile of the word query&nbsp;<em>Sehnsucht</em>. This profile is an up-to-date definition of the lexeme&nbsp;<em>Sehnsucht</em></span><span lang="UK">.&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">By extrapolating the basic semantic features of this definition on the cognitive features of the concept SEHNSUCHT, the main concept representatives of the latter have been determined.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">It</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">has</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">been</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">revealed</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">that</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">the</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">basic</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">emotional</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">senses</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;of</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">the</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">concept</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">SEHNSUCHT (‘striving’, ‘desire’, ‘wish’, ‘longing’, ‘mourning for a person one loses’, ‘passionate attraction’ and others) create the following sense clusters: 1) ‘intensive inner affection’; 2) ‘passionate (sexual) affection’; 3) ‘striving for life changes (alternatives)’; 4)</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">‘longing (nostalgia) for life changes</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">(alternatives)’; 5) ‘mourning (grief) for another person, often with no hope’.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Based on the linguistic corpus statistic data as of the frequency of co-occurrent-like forms, co-occurrents and left- and right-hand collocates of the word query&nbsp;<em>Sehnsucht</em>, the co-occurrent profile of the word was developed.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">With the&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">help of the relevant definition of the lexeme&nbsp;<em>Sehnsucht</em>&nbsp;studied</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">on the basis of the co-occurrent profile, the basic concept representatives of the concept&nbsp;SEHNSUCHT</span><span lang="EN-US">, i.e. PASSION, DESIRE, SADNESS, were revealed. These concepts can facilitate an adequate transfer of the specific concept SEHNSUCHT to the target languages and cultures, provided no adequate analogue exists.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">The tested method may be also applied in psycholinguistic studies aimed at mental and verbal categorization of specific emotions.</span></p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">References</span></strong></p> <ul> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Adolphs</span><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">S</span><span lang="UK">. (2006).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="EN-US">Introducing Electronic Text Analysis: A practical guide for language and literary studies</span></em><span lang="EN-US">. 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The</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Linguo</span><span lang="UK">-</span><span lang="EN-US">Cultural</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Concept</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">TORSCHLUSSPANIK</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">as</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">the</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Representative</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">of</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Ethno</span><span lang="UK">-</span><span lang="EN-US">Specific</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Psycho</span><span lang="UK">-</span><span lang="EN-US">Emotional</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">State</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">of Germans.&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="EN-US">Psycholinguistics-Psiholingvistika,&nbsp;</span></em><em><span lang="UK">25</span></em><span lang="EN-US">(2), 2</span><span lang="UK">34</span><span lang="EN-US">–</span><span lang="UK">249</span><span lang="EN-US">. https://doi.org/10.31470/2309-1797-2019-25-2.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">NWDTEL</span><span lang="UK">.</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;(</span><span lang="UK">1993</span><span lang="EN-US">)</span><span lang="UK">.</span>&nbsp;<em><span lang="UK">New Webster’s Dictionary and Thesaurus of the English Language</span></em><span lang="UK">. 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M</span><span lang="EN-US">oscow</span><span lang="UK">:&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">G</span><span lang="UK">noz</span><span lang="EN-US">i</span><span lang="UK">s</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">[in Russian]</span><span lang="UK">.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Wierzbicka</span><span lang="UK">,&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">A</span><span lang="UK">. (1999).&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="EN-US">Emotions Across Languages and Cultures: Diversity and Universals</span></em><em><span lang="UK">.&nbsp;</span></em><span lang="EN-US">Cambridge</span><span lang="UK">:</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511521256</span></li> </ul> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics. 2014 - 2020. All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/290 Assessing College Writing: Do Students Connect with the Text? 2020-07-13T13:46:48+00:00 Taleen Nalabandian taleen.nalabandian@ttu.edu Roman Taraban roman.taraban@ttu.edu Jessica C. Pittman jessica.pittman@ttu.edu Sage Maliepaard sage.maliepaard@ttu.edu <p>Reading-response research has shown that students respond to a text by engaging various cognitive and emotional processes. The aim of the current study was to examine students’ written reactions to an assigned reading as a way to determine (1) whether students connect with the reading and (2) the differing cognitive styles they may utilize in their reactions. The methods applied two text-analytic procedures to 238 student reactions to an ethics case study. The procedures were language style matching, which is a metric of engagement, and the categorical-dynamic index, which is a metric of analytic and experiential processing. We predicted that students who more strongly connected—or engaged—with the text would also demonstrate greater analytic thinking in their written response and, conversely, those who weakly connected with the text would express a more informal response based on experience. The data were analyzed using correlation statistics. The results showed that students whose writing more closely matched with the linguistic style of the case study were more likely to use an analytical style of writing, and students whose writing weakly matched the linguistic style of the case study were more likely to use an informal narrative style of writing. Future research should examine the extent to which language style matching and an associated analytic cognitive style are emergent skills that develop over the course of a college experience.</p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">References</span></strong></p> <ul> <li><span lang="EN-US">Baddeley, J.L. 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All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/291 Associative and Gender Aspects of the Emotional Concept of Jealousy in the Ukrainian Linguistic Culture 2020-07-14T07:30:51+00:00 Olena Petiak lenapetyak@gmail.com <p>The article deals with the associative and gender features of the perception by marriage partners of the emotional concept of "jealousy" within the framework of Ukrainian linguistic culture. Associative and gender features of the emotional concept of “jealousy” were found out as a result of data analysis of free word association test held with 100 Ukrainian speaking students, graduate students, and teachers (50 men and 50 women) at Khmelnytskyi National University (Ukraine). The respondents were in official marriage; their age was from 18 to 65. With the help of the free word association test the connections of the concept of "jealousy" in the Ukrainian language consciousness and the semantic zones of this stimulus word were determined. An important step was to take into account the opinions of the researchers regarding the possible difference between manifestations and the emergence of jealousy in men and women. Psycholinguistic ideas about jealousy are manifested in the ambivalence of emotions, the semantic signs of which are the polar properties of “love” (“care”) – “hatred” (“doubt”, “suspicion”). The gender factor affects the structure of the associative field of the concept of "jealousy" and determines both the quantitative indicators in the structure of the organization of the associative field of the concept, as well as its “semantic content”. Qualitative analysis of the results of the free association test helped to form separate fragments of male and female world images in their linguistic consciousness and made it possible to talk about gender stereotypes regarding jealousy in the everyday linguistic consciousness of marriage partners.</p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">References</span></strong></p> <ul> <li>Гаврилів О. Непряма вербальна агресія. <em>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</em><em>. </em>2019. Т.&nbsp;6, № 2. С. 7–20. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3637704.</li> <li>Изард К. Э. Психология эмоций. Нижний Новгород : Питер, 2002.</li> <li>Ильин Е. П. Эмоции и чувства. C.-Петербург : Питер, 2016.</li> <li>Кубрякова Е. С. Начальные этапы становления когнитивизма: лингвистика – психология – когнитивная наука. <em>Вопросы языкознания</em>, 1995. № 4. С. 3-15.</li> <li>Маслоу А. Мотивация и личность. Москва: Питер, 2008 .</li> <li>Мень А. Мировая духовная культура. Нижний. Новгород: Нижегородская ярмарка, 1995.</li> <li>Рубинштейн С. Л. Основы общей психологии. Санкт-Петербург: Питер, 2006.</li> <li>Фромм Э. Состояние человека. Москва: Смысл, 1995.</li> <li>Фуко М.&nbsp;Історія сексуальності. Харків&nbsp;: Око, 2000.&nbsp;</li> <li>Хомуленко Т., Кузнецов А. Психолингвистическое значение концепта «вера». <em>Psycholinguistics-</em><em>Psiholingvistika</em>. 2019. Вип. 25, № 1. С. &nbsp;338-362.</li> <li>Шевцов А., &amp; Гупаловська В. Психосемантичний зміст поняття сексуальності в мовній свідомості дорослих.&nbsp;<em>Psycholinguistics-Psiholingvistika</em>, 2020<em>, </em><em>Вип. </em><em>27</em><em>, № </em><em>1</em><em>.</em> С. 310-334. https://doi.org/10.31470/ 2309-1797-2020-27-1-310-334.</li> <li>Pines A. (1992). Romantic Jealousy: <em>Understanding and Conquering the Shadow of Love</em>. New York: St. Martin’s Press.</li> <li>Kristjansson K. (2002). <em>Justifying Emotions: Pride and Jealousy</em>. L.: Routledge.</li> <li>Lyubimova, S. (2017). Etymological memory of a word in designating sociocultural stereotype.&nbsp;<em>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics,</em>&nbsp;<em>4</em>(1), 140-149.&nbsp; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.821718.</li> <li>Terekhova, D. (2018). An experimental study of the lingual consciousness of Ukrainians and Russians (Dynamic aspect).&nbsp;<em>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics,</em> <em>5</em>(1), 92-110.&nbsp; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1436306.</li> </ul> <p><strong>References </strong><strong>(translated and transliterated)</strong></p> <ul> <li>Havryliv, O. (2019). Nepriama verbalna agressiya [Indirect verbal aggression]. <em>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics,</em> <em>6</em>(2), 7–20. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3637704.</li> <li>Izard, K. E. (2002). Psikhologiya Emotsii [<em>Psychology of Emotions].</em> Nizhny Novgorod: Piter, 446.</li> <li>Ilyin, E. P. (2016). <em>Emotsii i Chuvstva [Emotions and Feelings]</em>. S.-Petersburg: Piter.</li> <li>Kubryakova, E. S. (1995). The initial stages of the formation of cognitivism: linguistics-psychology-cognitive science. <em>Voprosy Linguistiki</em>, <em>4,</em> 3-15.</li> <li>Maslow, A. (2008). <em>Motivatsiya i Lichnost</em> [<em>Motivation and Personality].</em> Moscow: Piter.</li> <li>Men, A. (1995). Mirivaya Dukhovnaya Kultura [<em>World Spiritual Culture].</em> Nizhny Novgorod: Nizhegorodskaya Yarmarka.</li> <li>Rubinstein, S. L. (2006). Osnovy Obshchey Psikhologii [<em>Fundamentals of General Psychology].</em> S.-Petersburg: Piter.</li> <li>Fromm, E. (1995). <em>Sostoyaniye Cheloveka</em> [<em>The Human Condition].</em> Moscow: Sense.</li> <li>Foucault, M. (2000). <em>Istoriya Sexualnosti [The History of Sexuality].</em> Kharkiv: Oko.&nbsp;</li> <li>Khomulenko, T., Kuznetsov, A. (2019). Psycholinguistic meaning of the concept of “Faith”. <em>Psycholinguistics-Psiholingvistika</em>, <em>25</em>(1), 338-362. https://doi.org/10.31470/2309-1797-2019-25-1-338-362.</li> <li>Shevtsov, A., &amp; Hupalovska, V. (2020). Psychosemantic content of the concept of sexuality in the linguistic consciousness of adults. <em>Psycholinguistics-Psiholingvistika</em>, <em>27</em>(1), 310–334. https://doi.org/10.31470/2309-1797-2020-27-1-310-334.</li> <li>Pines, A. (1992). Romantic Jealousy: Understanding and Conquering the Shadow of Love. New York: St. Martin's Press.</li> <li>Kristjansson, K. (2002). Justifying Emotions: Pride and Jealousy. L.: Routledge.</li> <li>Lyubimova, S. (2017). Etymological Memory of a Word in Designating Sociocultural Stereotype.&nbsp;<em>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</em>,&nbsp;<em>4</em>(1), 140–149.&nbsp; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.821718.</li> <li>Terekhova, D. (2018). An Experimental Study of the Lingual Consciousness of Ukrainians and Russians (Dynamic Aspect).&nbsp;<em>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</em>,&nbsp;<em>5</em>(1), 92–110. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1436306.</li> </ul> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics. 2014 - 2020. All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/292 Reflective Style and Speech Production During Academic Task Solving In University Students 2020-07-14T07:32:38+00:00 Olena Savchenko savchenko.elena.v@gmail.com Heorhii Kalmykov kalmykov_gv@ukr.net Liudmyla Malimon malimon.ludmila@eenu.edu.ua <p>The aim of the article is to examine the relationship&nbsp;between students’ reflective information processing style and speech production during academic tasks solving.&nbsp;The study applies<strong>&nbsp;</strong><em>Index of </em><em>Learning&nbsp;</em><em>Styles&nbsp;</em><em>Questionnaire</em>&nbsp;(Felder &amp; Solomon, 2001) to examine four pairs of learning styles, notably active –reflective, sensing – intuitive, visual – verbal and sequential - global. The study applies functional analysis suggested by Naydonov (2008). The students were asked to solve the academic tasks aligned with their knowledge of the academic module. The study applies analysis of fourteen categories according to the following two criteria, notably considering the content/meaning of students’ responses and type of solution. The findings indicate that students with a high level of reflective and verbal style less frequently apply category text (34.55±12.39), comparatively with students with a low level of reflective та verbal style (65.94±4.13). Students with a high level of reflective and verbal style more frequently apply category tools (6.61±1.96) and less frequently category intentions (1.69±1.78) comparatively with students with a low level of reflective and verbal style (1.06±.78 and 2.30±.71, respectively). Category models are more frequent in students with a medium level of reflective style (3.61±.99), comparatively with students with a high (2.05±2.76) and a low (2.69±1.01) level. Therefore, speech production in categories of&nbsp;<em>models&nbsp;</em>and<em>&nbsp;tools&nbsp;</em>evaluates the best solutions in the academic setting, providing an efficient academic task solving.</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Боса, В.&nbsp;П. Мовленнєва компетентність майбутніх учителів іноземних мов: методологія проблеми. Восточный Европейский научный журнал: международный польский научный журнал. 2017, 11 (27), Ч. 3, 8-13.</li> <li class="show">Залевская&nbsp; А.&nbsp;А. «Рефлексия» и «языковое сознание»: вопросы терминологии.&nbsp;<em>Вестник Тверского государственного университета. Серия «Филология».&nbsp;</em>2015,<em>&nbsp;</em>4, 29–36.</li> <li class="show">Карпов&nbsp;А.&nbsp;В.&nbsp; Психология рефлексивных механизмов деятельности. М. : Изд-во «Институт психологии РАН», 2004.</li> <li class="show">Кулик О. Поняття рефлексії, її сутність та роль у методиці навчання української мови. Українська мова і література в школі. 2014, 3, 2–7.</li> <li class="show">Найдьонов&nbsp;М.&nbsp;І. Формування системи рефлексивного управління в організаціях. К.: Міленіум, 2008.</li> <li class="show">Рубинштейн С. Л. Бытие и сознание. Человек и мир. СПб.: Питер, 2003.</li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Савченко О. В. Рефлексивна компетентність особистості. Херсон : ПП Вишемирський В. С., 2016.</span></li> <li class="show">Савченко&nbsp;О.&nbsp;В. Стиль розв’язання проблемно-конфліктної ситуації як аспект аналізу життєвого шляху особистості. Вісник Одеського національного університету. Серія : Психологія. 2015, Т. 20, 2 (36), Ч. 1, 142–152.</li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Семенов&nbsp;И.&nbsp;Н., Степанов&nbsp;С.&nbsp;Ю. Рефлексия в организации творческого мышления и саморазвития личности. Вопросы психологии. 1983, № 2, 35–42.</span></li> <li class="show">Старовойтенко Е. Б. Культурная психология личности. М.: Академический проспект : Гаудемус, 2007.</li> <li class="show">Холодная&nbsp;М.&nbsp;А. Когнитивные стили. О природе индивидуального ума. СПб.: Питер, 2004.</li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Шаров&nbsp;А.&nbsp;С. Онтология психологических механизмов рефлексии. Вестник Омского государственного педагогического университета : электрон. науч. журнал. 2006. Режим доступа :&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">http</span><span lang="UK">://</span><span lang="EN-US">sfrik</span><span lang="UK">.</span><span lang="EN-US">omskreg</span><span lang="UK">.</span><span lang="EN-US">ru</span><span lang="UK">/</span><span lang="EN-US">res</span><span lang="UK">/.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="UK">Щедровицкий&nbsp;Г.&nbsp;П. Процессы и структуры в мышлении: курс лекций. Из архива Г.&nbsp;П.&nbsp;Щедровицкого. М</span><span lang="EN-US">.: «</span><span lang="UK">Путь</span><span lang="EN-US">», 2003</span><span lang="UK">, Т.</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;6.</span></li> <li class="show">Felder R.M. &amp; Solomon B.A. Index of learning styles questionnaire. North Carolina State University, 2001.&nbsp;Retrieved from&nbsp;http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/ public/ILSdir/ILS-a.html.</li> <li class="show">Kagan J. Reflection-impulsivity: the generality and dynamics of conceptual tempo. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1965, 77, 17–24.</li> <li class="show">Vygranka Т. The Features of Formation of Speech Competence of Future Philologists in the Educational Process of Institution of Higher Education. International Academy Journal Web of Scholar. 2019, 5(35), 26-30. https://doi.org/10.31435/rsglobal_wos/31052019/6502.</li> </ul> <p><strong>References (translated and transliterated)</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Bosa,&nbsp;V.&nbsp;P. (2017). Movlennieva kompetentnist maybutnikh uchyteliv inozemnykh&nbsp; mov: metodolohiya problemy.&nbsp;<em>Vostochnyj Evropejskij nauchnyj zhurnal: mezhdunarodnyj polskij nauchnyj zhurnal</em>, 11 (27), P. 3, 8-13.</li> <li class="show">Zalevskaya,&nbsp;A.&nbsp;A. (2015). «Refleksiya» i «yazykovoe soznanie»: voprosy terminologii ["Reflection" and "linguistic consciousness": questions of terminology].&nbsp;<em>Vestnik Tverskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya «Filologiya»,&nbsp;</em>4, 29–36.</li> <li class="show">Karpov,&nbsp;A.&nbsp;V. (2004).&nbsp;<em>Psihologiya Refleksivnyh Mehanizmov Deyatelnosti [Psychology of reflective mechanisms of activity].</em>&nbsp;Moscow: Izd-vo «Institut psihologii RAN».</li> <li class="show">Kulyk, O. (2014). Poniattia refleksiyi, yii sutnist ta rol u metodytsi navchannia ukrayinskoyi movy [The concept of reflection, its essence and role in the methodology of teaching the Ukrainian language].&nbsp;<em>Ukrayinska mova i literatura v shkoli,</em>&nbsp;3, 2–7.</li> <li class="show">Naydonov,&nbsp;M.&nbsp;І. (2008).&nbsp;<em>Formuvannia Systemy Refleksyvnoho Upravlіnnia v Orhanіzatsіyakh [Formation of Reflexive Management System in Organizations].</em>&nbsp;Kyiv: Mіlenіum.</li> <li class="show">Rubinshtejn,&nbsp;S.&nbsp;L. (2003)&nbsp;<em>Bytie i Soznanie. Chelovek i Mir [Genesis and Consciousness. Man and the World.].</em>&nbsp;St. Peterburg: Piter.</li> <li class="show">Savchenko,&nbsp;O.&nbsp;V. (2016).&nbsp;<em>Refleksyvna Kompetentnist Osobystosti [Personality`s Reflective Competence].</em>&nbsp;Kherson: Vyshemyrskyi.</li> <li class="show">Savchenko,&nbsp;O.&nbsp;V. (2015) Styl rozvyazannia problemno-konfliktnoyi sytuatsiyi yak aspekt analizu zhyttievoho shliakhu osobystosti [Style of resolving a problem-conflict situation as an aspect of person's life experience analysis].&nbsp;<em>Visnyk Odeskoho natsionalnoho universytetu. Seriya: Psykholohiya</em>, T. 20, 2 (36), P. 1, 142–152.</li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Semenov</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">I.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">N.</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">&amp; Stepanov&nbsp;S.&nbsp;Yu.(1983) Refleksiya v organizatsii tvorcheskogo myishleniya i samorazvitiya lichnosti [Reflection in the organization of creative thinking and personal self-development].&nbsp;<em>Voprosyi psihologii</em>, 2, 35–42.</span></li> <li class="show">Starovoitenko, E.&nbsp;B. (2007).&nbsp;<em>Kulturnaya Psihologiya Lichnosti [Cultural Psychology of the Person].&nbsp;</em>Moscow: Akademicheskij prospekt: Gaudemus, 2007.</li> <li class="show">Holodnaya, M. A. (2004).&nbsp;<em>Kognitivnye Stili. O Prirode Individualnogo Uma [Cognitive Styles. About the Nature of the Individual Mind].</em>&nbsp;Sankt-Peterburg: Piter.</li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Sharov&nbsp;A.&nbsp;S. (2006) Ontologiya psihologicheskih mehanizmov refleksii [Ontology of psychological mechanisms of reflection].&nbsp;<em>Vestnik Omskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta : elektron. nauch. zhurnal.</em>&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">Retrieved from</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;http://sfrik.omskreg.ru/res/.</span></li> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-US">Schedrovitskiy&nbsp;G.&nbsp;P. (2003) Protsessyi i strukturyi v myishlenii: kurs lektsiy [Processes and structures in thinking: a course of lectures.].&nbsp;<em>Iz arhiva G.&nbsp;P.&nbsp;Schedrovitskogo.</em>&nbsp;</span><span lang="UK">Moscow</span><span lang="EN-US">: «Put», T. 6.</span></li> <li class="show">Felder, R.M. &amp; Solomon, B.A. (2001). Index of learning styles questionnaire.&nbsp;<em>North Carolina State University</em>. Retrieved from http://www2.ncsu.edu/ unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/ ILS-a.html.</li> <li class="show">Kagan, J. (1965). Reflection-impulsivity: the generality and dynamics of conceptual tempo.&nbsp;<em>Journal of Abnormal Psychology</em>,77, 17–24.</li> <li class="show">Vygranka, Т. (2019) The Features of Formation of Speech Competence of Future Philologists in the Educational Process of Institution of Higher Education.&nbsp;<em>International Academy Journal Web of Scholar</em>, 5(35), 26-30. https://doi.org/10.31435/rsglobal_wos/31052019/6502.</li> </ul> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/293 The Discursive Construction of Certainty and Uncertainty in the Scientific Texts of Forensic Psychiatry 2020-07-16T08:34:09+00:00 Rosa Scardigno rosa.scardigno@uniba.it Ignazio Grattagliano ignazio.grattagliano@uniba.it Amelia Manuti amelia.manuti@uniba.it Giuseppe Mininni giuseppe.mininni@uniba.it <p>A common ground between mental health and judicial-legal domains concerns concepts like “care”, “control” and “possibility to foresee” human behaviour, with particular reference to the “social dangerousness”. The connections between these sense-making practices can be traced by discursive modulation of “certainty/uncertainty”. This study aimed to highlight the discursive peculiarities of a specific socio-cultural context and genre, namely scientific papers. The corpus of data consisted in a selection of 30 papers published by the BJP (from 1975 to 2015), on subjects concerning forensic psychiatry, subjected to Content Analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis. Results showed that the papers adopted two main socio-epistemic rhetorics. On one side, the enunciators proceeded in an “assertive” and rigorous manner through a social-epistemic rhetoric of “reassurance”; on the other side, they gave voice to rhetoric of the “limit”, lacking any cognitive “closure”.</p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">References</span></strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Bakhtin, M.M. (1979). <em>Estetika slovesnogo tvorcestva</em>. Moskow: Iskusstvo.</li> <li class="show">Bennett, T., Holloway, K., &amp; Farrington, D. 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All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/294 The Phrase “Krivorazbrana Tolerantnost” in Bulgarian Maternity Forum Communication 2020-07-16T08:34:08+00:00 Bilyana Todorova b_stoianova@hotmail.com <p><span lang="EN-US">The aim of the research is to present the meaning and the scope of the phrase “krivorazbrana tolerantnost“ (misunderstood tolerance), which functions as a cliché in everyday communication. The corpus is excerpted from the largest Bulgarian forum platform – bg-mamma and investigates the use of 55 phrases between 2006 and 2017. “Krivorazbrana tolerantnost” is used in public communication to express disagreement with someone’s behaviour/point of view or fear of the changing habits or traditions. Using the cognitive ethnolinguistic approach as well as corpus-based discourse techniques, the paper focuses on the corpus uses of the phrase, its pragmatic influence on the dialogue and the people or the topics which are usually an object of misunderstood tolerance according to&nbsp;<em>bg-mamma</em>&nbsp;forum users. The results show that the context meaning of the phrase usually is over-tolerance or&nbsp;</span><span lang="BG">too</span><span lang="BG">&nbsp;much permissiveness</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;and it is used in conversations, discussing&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">the rights and liberties of different groups and minorities</span><span lang="EN-US">. As the tolerance itself is a kind of forcing oneself to accept something one does not support or believe in, its meaning and the contextual meaning of the investigated collocation are close.</span></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>References</strong></p> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Arias, R. and Bryla, M. (2018) Orientation towards otherness in the social and literary spaces of today’s Europe.&nbsp;<em>Palgrave Communication,</em>&nbsp;<em>4</em>(18), Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-018-0070-3. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-018-0070-3.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Bartmiński,&nbsp;J.&nbsp;(2009)&nbsp;Aspects of Cognitive Ethnolinguistics, Sheffield:&nbsp;Equinox.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Bartminski, J. and Chlebda, W. (2008) Jak badac jezykowo-kulturowy obraz swiata Słowian i ich sasiadów?,&nbsp;<em>Etnolingwistyka</em>,&nbsp;<em>20,&nbsp;</em>11–27.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Brindle,&nbsp;A.&nbsp;(2016) The Language of Hate: A Corpus Linguistic Analysis of White Supremacist Language. Abingdon:&nbsp;Routledge.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Добрева, Е. (2009) Толерантност, нетолерантност и нулева толерантност в съвременния български печат (Критически лингвосемиотичен анализ).&nbsp;В. Търново: Фабер.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Ефтимова, А. (2016) Двойственият език в медиите: езикът на политическата коректност&nbsp;vs&nbsp;езика на омразата. София: Парадигма.&nbsp;</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Kreytchova, El.,&nbsp;Stalyanova,&nbsp;N.&nbsp;(2017).&nbsp;The Power of Public Speech.&nbsp;Sofia:&nbsp;Paradigma.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Kyuchukov, H.&nbsp;(2019)&nbsp;Aquisition of Turkish Grammatical Categories in Bilingual Context.&nbsp;<em>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</em>,&nbsp;<em>6</em>(1), 32-46.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3375406.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Musolff, A. (2017) Language aggression in public debates on immigration<em>. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict</em>,&nbsp;<em>5</em>(2), 175–177.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.5.2.01mus.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Niebrzegowska-Bartmińska,&nbsp;S.,&nbsp;(2018)&nbsp;What data are relevant to ethnolinguistic analyses?,&nbsp;<em>Ethnolinguistics</em>,&nbsp;<em>29,</em>&nbsp;11–29.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.17951/et.2017.29.11.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Nizah, M.,&nbsp;Jawan, J.,&nbsp;Singh, Sarjit,&nbsp;S.,&nbsp;Samsu,&nbsp;K. (2015) Framing Ethnic Tolerance, Political Tolerance and Voting Behaviour.&nbsp;<em>Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,</em>&nbsp;6(4), 365-373.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s1p365.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Steinbrich, P. (2016)&nbsp;Creating Academic Text: The Use of Lexical Syntagms by L2 Undergraduate Students of English. In:&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Chodkiewicz,&nbsp;P.&nbsp;Steinbrich,&nbsp;(Eds.).&nbsp;<em>Working with Text and Around Text in Foreign Language Environments</em>, (pp.125-141).&nbsp;M.&nbsp;Krzemińska-Adamek. Springer.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33272-7_8</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Tateo, L. (2008)&nbsp;The "fascist" discourse in computer mediated communication: the "dual strategy" model of the Italian Extreme Right.&nbsp;<em>Psicologia &amp; Sociedade</em>,&nbsp;20(2).</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Тодорова, Б. (2019) Някои наблюдения върху концепта ТОЛЕРАНТНОСТ в българския език.&nbsp;In:&nbsp;Ed.&nbsp;by&nbsp;S. Niebrzegowska-Bartmińska&nbsp;&amp;&nbsp;D. Pazio-Wlazłowska,&nbsp;(Eds.).&nbsp;<em>Wartości w językowo-kulturowym obrazie świata Słowian i ich sąsiadów. Jedność w różnorodności. Wokół słowiańskiej aksjosfery.</em>&nbsp;(pp. 307-320).&nbsp;Lublin:&nbsp;UMCS.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Van Dijk, T.&nbsp;(2015)&nbsp;<a style="font-weight: 300;" href="http://www.discourses.org/OldArticles/Racism%20in%20the%20Press.pdf">Racism in the Press</a>.&nbsp;In:<em>&nbsp;</em>N.&nbsp;Bonvillain,&nbsp;(Ed.).&nbsp;Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology.&nbsp;(pp. 384-392).&nbsp;London: Routledge.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Wodak,&nbsp;R.&nbsp;&amp;&nbsp;K. Savski&nbsp;(2018)&nbsp;Critical Discourse–Ethnographic Approaches to Language Policy. In:&nbsp;J.&nbsp;W. Tollefson and M. Pérez-Milans, (Eds.).&nbsp;<em>The Oxford Handbook of Language Policy and Planning</em><em>.</em>&nbsp;(pp. 93-112). NY: Oxford Univ. Press.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190458898.013.4.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Wodak, R., Meyer M. (2001)&nbsp;Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: SAGE.&nbsp;http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9780857028020.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Wodak, R., Reisigl, M. (2001) The Semiotics of Racism. Approaches in Critical Discourse Analysis. Vienna: Passagen Verlag.</li> </ul> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>References&nbsp;(translated and transliterated)</strong></p> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Arias, R. and Bryla, M. (2018) Orientation towards otherness in the social and literary spaces of today’s Europe.&nbsp;<em>Palgrave Communication,</em>&nbsp;<em>4</em>(18), Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-018-0070-3. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-018-0070-3.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Bartmiński,&nbsp;J.&nbsp;(2009)&nbsp;Aspects of Cognitive Ethnolinguistics, Sheffield:&nbsp;Equinox.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Bartminski, J. and Chlebda, W. (2008) Jak badac jezykowo-kulturowy obraz swiata Słowian i ich sasiadów?,&nbsp;<em>Etnolingwistyka</em>,&nbsp;<em>20,&nbsp;</em>11–27.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Brindle,&nbsp;A.&nbsp;(2016) The Language of Hate: A Corpus Linguistic Analysis of White Supremacist Language. Abingdon:&nbsp;Routledge.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Dobreva, E. (2009) Tolerantnost, netolerantnost i nuleva tolerantnost v savremennia balgarski pechat (Kriticheski lingvosemiotichen analiz). V.&nbsp;Tarnovo:&nbsp;Faber.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Eftimova, A. (2016) Dvoystveniyat ezik v mediite: ezikat na politicheskata korektnost vs ezika na omrazata. Sofia: Prosveta.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Kreytchova, El.,&nbsp;Stalyanova,&nbsp;N.&nbsp;(2017).&nbsp;The Power of Public Speech.&nbsp;Sofia:&nbsp;Paradigma.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Kyuchukov, H.&nbsp;(2019)&nbsp;Aquisition of Turkish Grammatical Categories in Bilingual Context.&nbsp;<em>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</em>,&nbsp;<em>6</em>(1), 32-46.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3375406.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Musolff, A. (2017) Language aggression in public debates on immigration<em>. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict</em>,&nbsp;<em>5</em>(2), 175–177.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.5.2.01mus.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Niebrzegowska-Bartmińska,&nbsp;S.,&nbsp;(2018)&nbsp;What data are relevant to ethnolinguistic analyses?,&nbsp;<em>Ethnolinguistics</em>,&nbsp;<em>29,</em>&nbsp;11–29.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.17951/et.2017.29.11.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Nizah, M.,&nbsp;Jawan, J.,&nbsp;Singh, Sarjit,&nbsp;S.,&nbsp;Samsu,&nbsp;K. (2015) Framing Ethnic Tolerance, Political Tolerance and Voting Behaviour.&nbsp;<em>Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,</em>&nbsp;6(4), 365-373.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s1p365.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Steinbrich, P. (2016)&nbsp;Creating Academic Text: The Use of Lexical Syntagms by L2 Undergraduate Students of English. In:&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Chodkiewicz,&nbsp;P.&nbsp;Steinbrich,&nbsp;(Eds.).&nbsp;<em>Working with Text and Around Text in Foreign Language Environments</em>, (pp.125-141).&nbsp;M.&nbsp;Krzemińska-Adamek. Springer.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33272-7_8.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Tateo, L. (2008)&nbsp;The "fascist" discourse in computer mediated communication: the "dual strategy" model of the Italian Extreme Right.&nbsp;<em>Psicologia &amp; Sociedade</em>,&nbsp;20(2).</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Todorova, B. (2019) Nyakoi nablyudenia varhu kontsepta TOLERANTNOST&nbsp;v balgarskia ezik.&nbsp;In:&nbsp;Ed.&nbsp;by&nbsp;S. Niebrzegowska-Bartmińska&nbsp;&amp;&nbsp;D. Pazio-Wlazłowska,&nbsp;(Eds.).&nbsp;<em>Wartości w językowo-kulturowym obrazie świata Słowian i ich sąsiadów. Jedność w różnorodności. Wokół słowiańskiej aksjosfery.</em>&nbsp;(pp. 307-320).&nbsp;Lublin:&nbsp;UMCS.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Van Dijk, T.&nbsp;(2015)&nbsp;<a style="font-weight: 300;" href="http://www.discourses.org/OldArticles/Racism%20in%20the%20Press.pdf">Racism in the Press</a>.&nbsp;In:<em>&nbsp;</em>N.&nbsp;Bonvillain,&nbsp;(Ed.).&nbsp;Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology.&nbsp;(pp. 384-392).&nbsp;London: Routledge.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Wodak,&nbsp;R.&nbsp;&amp;&nbsp;K. Savski&nbsp;(2018)&nbsp;Critical Discourse–Ethnographic Approaches to Language Policy. In:&nbsp;J.&nbsp;W. Tollefson and M. Pérez-Milans, (Eds.).&nbsp;<em>The Oxford Handbook of Language Policy and Planning</em><em>.</em>&nbsp;(pp. 93-112). NY: Oxford Univ. Press.&nbsp;https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190458898.013.4.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Wodak, R., Meyer M. (2001)&nbsp;Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: SAGE.&nbsp;http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9780857028020.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400;">Wodak, R., Reisigl, M. (2001) The Semiotics of Racism. Approaches in Critical Discourse Analysis. Vienna: Passagen Verlag.</li> </ul> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Copyright East European Journal of Psycholinguistics. 2014 - 2020. All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/295 Content and Language Integrated Learning in Tertiary Education: Perspectives on Terms of Use and Integration 2020-07-16T08:34:06+00:00 Olena Zarichna olenazarichna1977@gmail.com Svitlana Buchatska svitusik@gmail.com Liudmyla Melnyk rozdoba_l@ukr.net Tetiana Savchuk tetsav777@gmail.com <p><span lang="EN-US">This paper reports on a classroom investigation into a tertiary variation of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) as well as addresses the conceptual and methodological parameters of this method as distinguished from the other two content-based English-taught courses: ESP and EMI. A special challenge for this research was to study the functionality of CLIL in the university settings in terms of content retention and language acquisition as well as the development of communicative culture in university students. With this purpose we conducted a pilot project on CLIL also designing a triple vector observation scheme (content retention; language acquisition; communication culture) and adding the high order thinking skills dimension as a pivotal learning goal in a CLIL-based English classroom. The project&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">comprised 8 syllabi-based sub-modules that featured scientific content and was conducted among 78 humanities majors. &nbsp;Findings show that students’ cognitive and communicative needs do not find sufficient support in the existing L2 courses to which CLIL may serve as a solution. Introduction of CLIL even at the level of a variable sub-module may considerably raise students’ satisfaction with L2 courses and provide a reliable backing in the development of their academic thinking and communicative culture.</span></p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">References</span></strong></p> <ul> <li>Григорьева К.С., Салехова Л.Л. Реализация принципов предметно-языкового интегрированного обучения с помощью технологий Web 2.0 в техническом вузе<em>. Вестник РУДН. Серия ИНФОРМАТИЗАЦИЯ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ.&nbsp;</em>2014. № 2. С. 11-18.</li> <li>Знанецька О.М. Основні дидактичні та методичні принципи викладання іноземної мови.&nbsp;<em>Актуальні</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>проблеми</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>викладання</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>іноземних</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>мов</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>для професійного спілкування : Матеріали Всеукр. наук.- практ. конф</em>., 6–7 квіт. 2012 р. : У 3 т. Д. : Біла К.О., 2012.<span lang="UK">&nbsp;С. 60-62.&nbsp;</span>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Retrieved from:&nbsp;</span><a href="http://www.confcontact.com/2012edu/2012edu_tom1.pdf">http://www.confcontact.com/2012edu/2012edu_tom1.pdf</a></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Barrios, E., Lara, M. (2020). CLIL methodology, materials and resources, and assessment in a monolingual context: an analysis of stakeholders’ perceptions in Andalusia.<em>&nbsp;The Language Learning Journal, 48</em>(1), 60-80.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Cummins, J. (1984). Bilingualism and Special Education. In&nbsp;<em>Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy.&nbsp;</em>Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Dafouz, E., Nunez, B., Sancho, C., &amp; Foran, D. (2007). Integrating CLIL at the Tertiary Level: Teachers’ and Students’ Reactions in Diverse Contexts-converging Goals:&nbsp;<em>CLIL in Europe</em>, edited by D. Marsh and D. Wolff. (pp. 91–101). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Fortanet-Gómez, I. &amp; Bellés-Fortuño, B. (2008). The relevance of discourse markers in teacher training courses for Content and Language Integrated Learning in higher education. In O. Martí Arnáinz, &amp; M. P. Safont Jordá (Eds),&nbsp;<em>Achieving multilingualism: Wills and ways. Proceedings of the First international conference on multilingualism (ICOM)&nbsp;</em>(pp. 149-159)<em>.&nbsp;</em></span>Castelló de la Plana: Universitat Jaume I.</li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Graham, K. M, Choi, Y., Davoodi, A., Razmeh, S., &amp; Dixon L.Q. (2018). Language and Content Outcomes of CLIL and EMI: A Systematic Review.&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="EN-US">LACLIL</span></em><span lang="EN-US">,&nbsp;<em>11</em>(1), 19-37.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Jiang, Li., Jun Zhang, L., &amp; May, S. (2019). Implementing English-Medium Instruction (EMI) in China: Teachers’ Practices and Perceptions, and students’ Learning Motivation and Needs.&nbsp;<em>International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 22</em>(2), 107-119.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Meyer, O. (2010). Introducing the CLIL-Pyramid: Key Strategies and Principles for CLIL Planning and Teaching.&nbsp;<em>Basic issues in EFL Teaching and Learning</em>, 295-313.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Lasagabaster, D., &amp; Sierra, J. (2010). Immersion and CLIL in English: More differences than similarities.&nbsp;<em>ELT Journal</em>,&nbsp;<em>64</em>(4), 367-375.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Yang, W. (2016). ESP vs CLIL: A Coin of Two Sides or a Continuum of Two Extremes?&nbsp;<em>ESP Today. Vol. 4</em>(1).<em>&nbsp;</em>P.43-68<em>.</em></span></li> </ul> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">References (translated and transliterated)</span></strong></p> <ul> <li><span lang="EN-US">Grigorieva K.S., Salekhova L.L. (2014). Realizatsia printsipov predmetno-yazykovogo integrirovannogo obucheniya s pomoshchyu tekhnologiy Web 2.0 v tekhnicheskom vuze. [Realisation of subject and language integrated learning principles using Web 2.0 technologies in higher technical school].&nbsp;<em>Vesnik RUDY. Seriya Informatizatsyia Obrazovaniya</em>. No. 2. P. 11-18.</span></li> <li>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Znanetska, O. (2012) Osnovni dydaktychni ta metodychni pryntsypy vykladannia inozemnoyi movy [The main didactic and methodical principles of teaching foreign languages].&nbsp;<em>Aktualni problemy ykladannia inozemnykh mov dlia professiynoho spilkuvannia</em>: materialy Vseukr. nauk.-prakt. konf., 6-7 kvit. 2012 r.: U 3 t. D.: Bila K.O. P. 60-62.&nbsp;Retrieved from:&nbsp;</span>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.confcontact.com/2012edu/2012edu_tom1.pdf">http://www.confcontact.com/2012edu/2012edu_tom1.pdf</a></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Barrios, E., Lara, M. (2020). CLIL methodology, materials and resources, and assessment in a monolingual context: an analysis of stakeholders’ perceptions in Andalusia.<em>&nbsp;The Language Learning Journal, 48</em>(1), 60-80.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Cummins, J. (1984). Bilingualism and Special Education. In&nbsp;<em>Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy.&nbsp;</em>Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Dafouz, E., Nunez, B., Sancho, C., &amp; Foran, D. (2007). Integrating CLIL at the Tertiary Level: Teachers’ and Students’ Reactions in Diverse Contexts-converging Goals:&nbsp;<em>CLIL in Europe</em>, edited by D. Marsh and D. Wolff. (pp. 91–101). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Fortanet-Gómez, I. &amp; Bellés-Fortuño, B. (2008). The relevance of discourse markers in teacher training courses for Content and Language Integrated Learning in higher education. In O. Martí Arnáinz, &amp; M. P. Safont Jordá (Eds),&nbsp;<em>Achieving multilingualism: Wills and ways. Proceedings of the First international conference on multilingualism (ICOM)&nbsp;</em>(pp. 149-159)<em>.&nbsp;</em>Castelló de la Plana: Universitat Jaume I.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Graham, K. M, Choi, Y., Davoodi, A., Razmeh, S., &amp; Dixon L.Q. (2018). Language and Content Outcomes of CLIL and EMI: A Systematic Review.&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="EN-US">LACLIL</span></em><span lang="EN-US">,&nbsp;<em>11</em>(1), 19-37.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Jiang, Li., Jun Zhang, L., &amp; May, S. (2019). Implementing English-Medium Instruction (EMI) in China: Teachers’ Practices and Perceptions, and students’ Learning Motivation and Needs.&nbsp;<em>International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 22</em>(2), 107-119.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Meyer, O. (2010). Introducing the CLIL-Pyramid: Key Strategies and Principles for CLIL Planning and Teaching.&nbsp;<em>Basic issues in EFL Teaching and Learning</em>, 295-313.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Lasagabaster, D., &amp; Sierra, J. (2010). Immersion and CLIL in English: More differences than similarities.&nbsp;<em>ELT Journal</em>,&nbsp;<em>64</em>(4), 367-375.</span></li> <li><span lang="EN-US">Yang, W. (2016). ESP vs CLIL: A Coin of Two Sides or a Continuum of Two Extremes?&nbsp;<em>ESP Today. Vol. 4</em>(1).<em>&nbsp;</em>P.43-68<em>.</em></span></li> </ul> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Copyright East European Journal of Psycholinguistics. 2014 - 2020. All Rights Reserved. http://eejpl.eenu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/296 Book Review 2020-07-16T08:34:05+00:00 Rabindra Kumar Verma rkverma1984@gmail.com <p>Susheel Kumar Sharma’s Unwinding Self: A Collection of Poems. Cuttack: Vishvanatha Kaviraj Institute, 2020, ISBN: 978-81-943450-3-9, Paperback, pp. viii + 152.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Like his earlier collection,&nbsp;<em>The Door is Half Open</em>, Susheel Kumar Sharma’s&nbsp;<em>Unwinding Self:</em>&nbsp;<em>A Collection of Poems&nbsp;</em>has three sections consisting of forty-two poems of varied length and style, a detailed Glossary mainly on the proper nouns from Indian culture and tradition and seven Afterwords from the pens of the trained readers from different countries of four continents. The structure of the book is circular. The first poem “Snapshots” indicates fifteen kaleidoscopic patterns of different moods of life in about fifteen words each. It seems to be a rumination on the variegated images of everyday experiences ranging from individual concerns to spiritual values. Art-wise, they can be called mini-micro-poems as is the last poem of the book.&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">While the character limit in a micro poem is generally 140 (the character limit on Twitter) Susheel has used just around 65 in each of these poems. Naturally, imagery, symbolism and cinematic technique play a great role in this case. In “The End of the Road” the poet depicts his individual experiences particularly changing scenario of the world. He seems to be worried about his eyesight getting weak with the passage of time, simultaneously he contrasts the weakness of his eyesight with the hypocrisy permeating the human life. He compares his diminishing eyesight to Milton and shows his fear as if he will get blind. He changes his spectacles six times to clear his vision and see the plurality of a reality in human life. It is an irony on the changing aspects of human life causing miseries to the humanity. At the end of the poem, the poet admits the huge changes based on the sham principles: “The world has lost its original colour” (4). The concluding lines of the poem make a mockery of the people who are not able to recognise reality in the right perspective.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The poem “Durga Puja in 2013” deals with the celebration of the festival “Durga Puja” popular in the Hindu religion. The poet’s urge to be with Ma Durga shows his dedication towards the Goddess Durga, whom he addresses with different names like ‘Mai’, ‘Ma’ and ‘Mother’. He worships her power and expresses deep reverence for annihilating the evil-spirits. The festival Durga Puja also reminds people of victory of the goddess on the elusive demons in the battlefield. “Chasing a Dream on the Ganges” is another poem having spiritual overtones. Similarly, the poem “Akshya Tritya” has religious and spiritual connotations. It reflects curiosity of people for celebration of “Akshya Tritya” with enthusiasm. But the political and economic overtones cannot be ignored as the poem ends with the remarkable comments:</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">The GDP may go up on this day;</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Even, Budia is able to</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Eat to his fill; Panditji can blow his</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Conch shell with full might.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Outside, somebody is asking for votes;</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Somebody is urging others to vote.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">I shall vote for&nbsp;<em>Akshya Tritya</em>. (65-66)</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; “On Reading Langston Hughes’ ‘Theme for English B’” is a long poem in the collection. In this poem, the poet reveals a learner’s craving for learning, perhaps who comes from an extremely poor background to pursue his dreams of higher education. The poet considers the learner’s plights of early childhood, school education and evolutionary spirit. He associates it with Dronacharya and Eklavya to describe the mythical system of education. He does not want to be burdened with the self-guilt by denying the student to be his ‘guru’ therefore, he accepts the challenge to change his life. Finally, he shows his sympathy towards the learner and decides to be the ‘guru’: “It is better to face/A challenge and change/Than to be burden with a life/Of self-guilt. /I put my signatures on his form willy-nilly” (11).</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The poem “The Destitute” is an ironical presentation of the modern ways of living seeking pleasure in the exotic locations all over the world. It portrays the life of a person who has to leave his motherland for earning his livelihood, and has to face an irreparable loss affecting moral virtues, lifestyle, health and sometimes resulting in deaths. The poem “The Black Experience” deals with the suppression of the Africans by the white people. The poem “Me, A Black Doxy”, perhaps points out the dilemma of a black woman whether she should prostitute herself or not, to earn her livelihood. Perhaps, her deep consciousness about her self-esteem does not allow her to indulge in it but she thinks that she is not alone in objectifying herself for money in the street. Her voice resonates repeatedly with the guilt of her indulgence on the filthy streets:</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">At the dining time</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Me not alone? In the crowded street</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Me not alone?</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">They ’ave white, grey, pink hair</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Me ’ave black hair – me not alone</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">There’s a crowd with black hair.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Me ’ave no black money</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Me not alone? (14)</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The poem “Thus Spake a Woman” is structured in five sections having expressions of the different aspects of a woman’s love designs. It depicts a woman’s dreams and her attraction towards her lover. The auditory images like “strings of a violin”, “music of the violin” and “clinch in my fist” multiply intensity of her feelings. With development of the poem, her dreams seem to be shattered and sadness know the doors of her dreamland. Finally, she is confronted with sadness and is taken back to the past memories reminding her of the difficult situations she had faced.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Replete with poetic irony, “Bubli Poems” presents the journey of a female, who, from the formative years of her life to womanhood, experienced gender stereotypes, biased sociocultural practices, and ephemeral happiness on the faces of other girls around her. The poem showcases the transformation of a village girl into a New Woman, who dreams her existence in all types of luxurious belongings rather than identifying her independent existence and finding out her own ways of living. Her dreams lead her to social mobility through education, friendships, and the freedom that she gains from her parents, family, society and culture. She attempts her luck in the different walks of human life, particularly singing and dancing and imagines her social status and wide popularity similar to those of the famous Indian actresses viz. Katrina and Madhuri Dixit: “One day Bubli was standing before the mirror/Putting on a jeans and jacket and shaking her hips/She was trying to be a local Katrina” (41). She readily bears the freakish behaviour of the rustic/uncultured lads, derogatory comments, and physical assaults in order to fulfil her expectations and achieves her individual freedom. Having enjoyed all the worldly happiness and fashionable life, ultimately, she is confronted with the evils designs around her which make her worried, as if she is ignorant of the world replete with the evils and agonies: “Bubli was ignorant of her agony and the lost calm” (42). The examples of direct poetic irony and ironic expressions of the socio-cultural evils, and the different governing bodies globally, are explicit in this poem: “Bubli is a leader/What though if a cheerleader./The news makes her family happy.”(40), “Others were blaming the Vice-Chancellor/ Some others the system;/ Some the freedom given to girls;”(45), and “Some blame poverty; some the IMF;/ Some the UN; some the environment;/ Some the arms race; some the crony’s lust;/ Some the US’s craving for power;/Some the UK’s greed. (46-47). Finally, Bubli finds that her imaginative world is fragile. She gives up her corporeal dreams which have taken the peace of her mind away. She yearns for shelter in the temples and churches and surrenders herself before deities praying for her liberation: “Jai Kali,/ Jai Mahakali, Jai Ma, Jai Jagaddhatri,/ Save me, save the world.” (47).</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the poem “The Unlucky”, the poet jibes at those who are lethargic in reading. He identifies four kinds of readers and places himself in the fourth category by rating himself a ‘poor’ reader. The first three categories remind the readers of William Shakespeare’s statement “Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.” At the end of the poem, the poet questions himself for being a poet and teacher. The question itself reflects on his ironic presentation of himself as a poor reader because a poet’s wisdom is compared with that of the philosopher and everybody worships and bows before a teacher, a “guru”, in the Indian tradition. The poet is considered the embodiment of both. The poet’s unfulfilled wish to have been born in Prayagraj is indexed with compunction when the poem ends with the question “Why was I not born in Prayagraj?” (52). Ending with a question mark, the last line of the poem expresses his desire for perfection. The next poem, “Saying Goodbye”, is elegiac in tone and has an allusion to Thomas Gray’s “The Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” in the line “When the curfew tolls the knell of the parting day”; it ends with a question mark. The poem seems to be a depiction of the essence and immortality of ‘time’. Reflecting on the poet’s consideration of the power and beauty of ‘time’, Pradeep Kumar Patra rightly points out, “It is such a phenomena that nobody can turn away from it. The moment is both beautiful as well as ferocious. It beautifies and showcases everything and at the same time pulls everything down when necessary” (146). Apparently, the poem “The Kerala Flood 2018”is an expression of emotions at the disaster caused by the flood in 2018. By reminding of Gandhi’s tenets to be followed by people for the sake of morality and humankind, the poet makes an implicit criticism of the pretentions, and violation of pledges made by people to care of other beings, particularly, cow that is worshiped as “mother” and is considered to be a symbol of fertility, peace and holiness in Hinduism as well as the Buddhist culture. The poet also denigrates people who deliberately ignore the sanctity of the human life in Hinduism and slaughter the animal cow to satisfy their appetites. In the poem, the carnivorous are criticized explicitly, but those who pretend to be herbivorous are decried as shams:</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">If a cow is sacrosanct</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">And people eat beef</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">One has to take a side.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Some of the friends chose to</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Side with cow and others</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">With the beef-eaters.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Some were more human</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">They chose both. (55)</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">The poet infuses positivity into the minds of the Indian people. Perhaps, he thinks that, for Indians, poverty, ignorance, dirt and mud are not taboos as if they are habitual to forbear evils by their instincts. They readily accept them and live their lives happily with pride considering their deity as the preserver of their lives. The poem “A Family by the Road” is an example of such beliefs, in which the poet lavishes most of his poetic depiction on the significance of the Lord Shiva, the preserver of people in Hinduism:</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Let me enjoy my freedom.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">I am proud of my poverty.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">I am proud of my ignorance.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">I am proud of my dirt.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">I have a home because of these.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">I am proud of my home.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">My future is writ on the walls</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">Of your houses</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">My family shall stay in the mud.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">After all, somebody is needed</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">To clean the dirt as well.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">I am Shiva,</span></p> <p><em><span lang="EN-IN">Shivoham</span></em><span lang="EN-IN">. (73)</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the poem “Kabir’s Chadar”, the poet invokes several virtues to back up his faith in spirituality and simplicity. He draws a line of merit and virtue between Kabir’s Chadar which is ‘white’ and his own which is “thickly woven” and “Patterned with various beautiful designs/ In dark but shining colours” (50). The poet expresses his views on Kabir’s ‘white’ Chadar symbolically to inculcate the sense of purity, fortitude, spirituality, and righteousness among people. The purpose of his direct comparison between them is to refute artificiality, guilt and evil intents of humanity, and propagate spiritual purity, the stark simplicities of our old way of life, and follow the patience of a saint like Kabir.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The poem “Distancing” is a statement of poetic irony on the city having two different names known as Bombay and Mumbai. The poet sneers at its existence in Atlas. Although the poet portraits the historical events jeering at the distancing between the two cities as if they are really different, yet the poet’s prophetic anticipation about the spread of the COVID-19 in India cannot be denied prima facie. The poet’s overwhelming opinions on the overcrowded city of Bombay warn humankind to rescue their lives. Even though the poem seems to have individual expressions of the poet, leaves a message of distancing to be understood by the people for their safety against the uneven things. The poem “Crowded Locals” seems to be a sequel to the poem “Distancing”. Although the poet’s purpose, and appeal to the commonplace for distancing cannot be affirmed by the readers yet his remarks on the overcrowded cities like in Mumbai (“Crowded Locals”), foresee some risk to the humankind. In the poem “Crowded Locals”, he details the mobility of people from one place to another, having dreams in their eyes and puzzles in their minds for their livelihood while feeling insecure especially, pickpockets, thieves and strangers. The poet also makes sneering comments on the body odour of people travelling in first class. However, these two poems have become a novel contribution for social distancing to fight against the COVID-19.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">In the poem “Buy Books, Not Diamonds” the poet makes an ironical interpretation of social anarchy, political upheaval, and threat of violence. In this poem, the poet vies attention of the readers towards the socio-cultural anarchy, especially, anarchy falls on the academic institutions in the western countries where capitalism, aristocracy, dictatorship have armed children not with books which inculcate human values but with rifles which create fear and cause violence resulting in deaths. The poet’s perplexed opinions find manifestation in such a way as if books have been replaced with diamonds and guns, therefore, human values are on the verge of collapse: “Nine radiant diamonds are no match/ To the redness of the queen of spades. . . . / … holding/ Rifles is a better option than/ Hawking groundnuts on the streets?” (67).The poet also decries the spread of austere religious practices and jihadist movement like Boko Haram, powerful personalities, regulatory bodies and religious persons: “Boko Haram has come/Obama has also come/The UN has come/Even John has come with/Various kinds of ointments” (67).</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The poem “Lost Childhood” seems to be a memoir in which the poet compares the early life of an orphan with the child who enjoys early years of their lives under the safety of their parents. Similarly, the theme of the poem “Hands” deals with the poet’s past experiences of the lifestyle and its comparison to the present generation. The poet’s deep reverence for his parents reveals his clear understanding of the ways of living and human values. He seems to be very grateful to his father as if he wants to make his life peaceful by reading the lines of his palms: “I need to read the lines in his palm” (70).</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the poem “A Gush of Wind”, the poet deliberates on the role of Nature in our lives. The poem is divided into three sections, perhaps developing in three different forms of the wind viz. air, storm, and breeze respectively. It is structured around the significance of the Nature. In the first section, the poet lays emphasis on the air we breathe and keep ourselves fresh as if it is a panacea. The poet criticizes artificial and material things like AC. In the second section, he depicts the stormy nature of the wind scattering papers, making the bed sheets dusty affecting or breaking the different types of fragile and luxurious objects like Italian carpets and lamp shades with its strong blow entering the oriels and window panes of the houses. Apparently, the poem may be an individual expression, but it seems to be a caricature on the majesty of the rich people who ignore the use of eco-chic objects and disobey the Nature’s behest. In the third and the last section of the poem, the poet’s tone is critical towards Whitman, Pushkin and Ginsberg for their pseudoscientific philosophy of adherence to the Nature. Finally, he opens himself to enjoy the wind fearlessly.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The poems like “A Voice” , “The New Year Dawn”, “The New Age”, “The World in Words in 2015”, “A Pond Nearby”, “Wearing the Scarlet Letter ‘A’”, “A Mock Drill”, “Strutting Around”, “Sahibs, Snobs, Sinners”, “Endless Wait”, “The Soul with a New Hat”, “Renewed Hope”, “Like Father, Unlike Son”, “Hands”, “Rechristening the City”, “Coffee”, “The Unborn Poem”, “The Fountain Square”, “Ram Setu”, and “Connaught Place” touch upon the different themes. These poems reveal poet’s creativity and unique features of his poetic arts and crafts.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The last poem of the collection “Stories from the Mahabharata” is written in twenty-five stanzas consisting of three lines each. Each stanza either describes a scene or narrates a story from the&nbsp;<em>Mahabharata</em>, the source of the poem. Every stanza has an independent action verb to describe the actions of different characters drawn from the&nbsp;<em>Mahabharata.</em>&nbsp;Thus, each stanza is a complete miniscule poem in itself which seems to be a remarkable characteristic of the poem. It is an exquisite example of ‘Micro-poetry’ on paper, remarkable for its brevity, dexterity and intensity. The poet’s conscious and brilliant reframing of the stories in his poem sets an example of a new type of ‘Found Poetry’ for his readers.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Although the poet’s use of various types images—natural, comic, tragic, childhood, horticultural, retains the attention of readers yet the abundant evidences of anaphora reflect redundancy and affect the readers’ concentration and diminishes their mental perception, for examples, pronouns ‘her’ and ‘we’ in a very small poem “Lost Childhood”, articles ‘the’ and ‘all’ in “Crowded Locals”, the phrase ‘I am proud of’&nbsp; in “A Family by the Road” occur many times. Svitlana Buchatska’s concise but evaluative views in her Afterword to&nbsp;<em>Unwinding Self</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;help the readers to catch hold of the poet’s depiction of his emotions. She writes, “Being a keen observer of life he vividly depicts people’s life, traditions and emotions involving us into their rich spiritual world. His poems are the reflection on the Master’s world of values, love to his family, friends, students and what is more, to his beloved India. Thus, the author reveals all his beliefs, attitudes, myths and allusions which are the patterns used by the Indian poets” (150).</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; W. H. Auden defines poetry as “the clear expression of mixed feelings.” It seems so true of Susheel Sharma’s&nbsp;<em>Unwinding Self</em>. It is a mixture of poems that touch upon the different aspects of human life. It can be averred that the collection consists of the poet’s seamless efforts to delve into the various domains of the human life and spot for the different places as well. It is a poetic revue in verse in which the poet instils energy, confidence, power and enthusiasm into minds of Indian people and touches upon all aspects of their lives. The poverty, ignorance, dirt, mud, daily struggle against liars, thieves, pickpockets, touts, politician and darkness have been depicted not as weaknesses of people in Indian culture but their strengths, because they have courage to overcome darkness and see the advent of a new era. The poems teach people morality, guide them to relive their pains and lead them to their salvation. Patricia Prime’s opinion is remarkable: “Sharma writes about his family, men and women, childhood, identity, roots and rootlessness, memory and loss, dreams and interactions with nature and place. His poised, articulate poems are remarkable for their wit, conversational tone and insight” (138). Through the poems in the collection, the poet dovetails the niceties of the Indian culture, and communicates its beauty and uniqueness meticulously. The language of the poem is lucid, elevated and eloquent. The poet’s use of diction seems to be very simple and colloquial like that of an inspiring teacher.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN">On the whole the book is more than just a collection of poems as it teaches the readers a lot about the world around them through a detailed Glossary appended soon after the poems in the collection. It provides supplementary information about the terms used abundantly in Indian scriptures, myths, and other religious and academic writings. The Glossary, therefore, plays pivotal role in unfolding the layers of meaning and reaching the hearts of the global readers. The “Afterwords” appended at the end, enhances readability of poems and displays worldwide acceptability, intelligibility, and popularity of the poet. The Afterwords are a good example of authentic Formalistic criticism and New Criticism. They indirectly teach a formative reader and critic the importance of forming one’s opinion, direct reading and writing without any crutches of the critics.&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Copyright East European Journal of Psycholinguistics. 2014 - 2020. All Rights Reserved.